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Midtern take home assignment - Essay Example Marx believed that in this kind of system, the laborers are oppressed. They work a lot and yet they get very little. On the contrary, the capitalist hardly works at all and yet they get almost everything. And it is in these circumstances that Marx made the aforementioned statements. Due to oppression, people needed something to believe in. They feel weak and powerless against the system. They believe that there is nothing they can do. That change is beyond their power. And because of this desperation, the people needed to believe that there is a higher power. They need to believe, even if they don't understand why the system is so unfair, that all this is part of a greater plan. That someday, they will be at ease. They need to believe that someone out there is aware and sympathetic of their misery. That someone out there would give them comfort. Thru religion, the oppressed find hope. As such, Marx believed that religion is a response to oppression. This is the reason why he said that religion is "The sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions." Without a 'heartless world' or 'soulless condition', religion would not emerge. If people where truly satisfied with the current state of things, they would not look for other places for happiness. They would not turn to religion of hope and comfort. In this context, Marx also said "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed cre... Hence, to believe in a certain religion is the only thing that the oppressed can do to make them feel better. "It is the opium of the people" Marx said. And we all know that opium is a narcotic drug. And we are aware what narcotic drugs can do. They provide an illusion of happiness, a fantasy. They make you feel better without solving the problem. To Marx, this is what religion provides to the people. The happiness that religion provides is not real, only momentary and most importantly, it does not solve the problem of oppression. Since religion provides happiness and hope to the people, for the meantime, they are contented. This prevents them from seeing the situation for what it really is. Instead of questioning the system, their attention is diverted to religion. Because of this, Marx also believed that the capitalist actually uses religion to pacify the people and maintain the system. I think the capitalist are aware of how significant the laborers' contribution is to the whole production. And without laborer cooperation, the whole economic system will fall. So the capitalist encourage the development of religion to keep laborers happy. And if they are happy, they continue to work for the system. They don't realize that the system is actually unfair to them. They are actually being oppressed by this system. Second Part: Explain why the socialization of means of production would eliminate the need for religion. In a capitalist system, the capitalist owns the machineries and materials which the laborers use for production. As a result, bulk of the profit goes back to the capitalist. If there is a socialization of means of production, said machineries and materials would be owned by the people themselves. In turn, the
Elements Of Autobiography In Martin Eden By Jack London In Londons literary ingenuity, Mark Eden is staged in such a way that it is widely considered a living autobiography for Jack London himself from the resemblance of the various themes and postulates in the book with the authors own perspectives during his life; in fact, so close to Londons perspectives in life are the issues discussed in the book that even the tragic end of Mark Eden taking his own life has been justifiably been surmised to be a foreshadow Jack Londons own death. The Elements of autobiography in Martin Eden by Jack London Martin Eden is a 1909 novel by a once renowned American author who was called Jack London that details a story of a young man that struggles for recognition among the literary elite of his time. In his life and times, social stereotypes and cultural biases abhor interactions between the poor and the bourgeoning rich class which forms one of the struggles that young Martin fights especially considering that he is in love with Roth Morse; a young bourgeois woman from a well off family. This work is a novel creation of superb work of a real literary craftsman which addresses the normal issues of young struggling writers explaining the challenges that they face daily with the publishing of their work. In Londons literary ingenuity, Mark Eden is staged in such a way that it is widely considered a living autobiography for Jack London himself from the resemblance of the various themes and postulates in the book with the authors own perspectives during his life; in fact, so close to Londons perspectives in life are the issues discussed in the book that even the tragic end of Mark Eden taking his own life has been justifiably been surmised to be a foreshadow Jack Londons own death. This essay looks at the book, Mark Eden, with the view of explaining the plot of the book in an attempt of determining how the authors life is reflected in the book. The essay also looks at the various themes discussed in the book and compares them with the ideological views that the author held in his lifetime. In addition to this, the essay also sets out to determine whether there is anything autobiographical about the book in reference to its authors life. These aims will be attained by drawing quotes and inferences from the book to justify postulates and authenticate presuppositions made in this regard. Further corroborative remarks will also be used from different authorities and literature about the same topic to reinforce the credibility of the findings and conclusions herein. This book is a pet favourite among upcoming writers who have faced the reality of the hardship that surrounds publishing their literary works of art. It is a story of a young and courageous Martin Eden who through his determination struggles through self-education in the early 20th century to edge a living for himself and subsequently achieve a footing at the helm of the literary elite of the time. As the story unfolds, it becomes clear thatEdens impetus towards hard work and desire of edging a name for himself among the societal elite is Ruth Morses love. Social stereotypes and societal norms fragrantly denyEden any chance of enjoying a union with Ruth since they are from two different social classes:Eden is from the lower working class of sailors while Ruth is from the higher bourgeois class. For Eden to move himself slightly towards attainment of any of his dreams of happily living with Ruth and earning an honourable living therefore, he must establish himself as a writer which is his life-long dream hence the passionate attempts at having his work published. This is the first place that Martin Eden closely reflects the life of Jack London. The skepticism with which Martin Eden views the publishing houses and publishers is the same cynicism thatLondon viewed publishers with during his formative years as a struggling writer. In effect, there is probably no better way of fully capturing the defiant cynicism thatLondon had in this regard than usingEdens own words: Ã¢â‚¬Â¦he [Eden] speculated that there was no human being in form of an editor to receive his manuscripts when he sent them but rather there was a an smart arrangement of cogs which automatically changed any manuscripts they received from this envelope to another attaching stamps to them then returning them to the sender(s) with a kindly written rejection slip (Berman 67). Edens wars continue but as is the case with all non-quitters, his day of laughter dawns but unfortunately it comes too late soon after his life-long love, Ruth Morse has given up on waiting for him to hit the right button of prosperity. In her impatience, she retorts in frustration to Edenthat Ã¢â‚¬Â¦had you only settled down in life and attempted to make something for yourself in lifeÃ¢â‚¬Â¦ I would have had reason to hope for the maturity of my love for you (Berman 38). There are authorities who have surmised quite justifiably that the character of Ruth Morse is modeled on Jack Londons first love, Mabel Applegarth who continually rejected Londonfor his apparent failure in life as a young writer (Campbell 145). In this regard also therefore, there is a direct inference from Londons life that is closely associated with Martin Eden making the argument that the book has autobiographical inclinations as plausible as it is justifiable. This notwithstanding, there are substantial differences in the story that do not rhyme at all withLondons convictions during his time. Such an example is the issue of socialism versus individualism as portrayed in the book. From the book,Edenrejects socialism repugnantly considering it slavery and instead hails individualism based on Nietzschean ideology. On the other hand, London is on record to have written to Upton Sinclair discrediting individualism and in his correspondence is quoted to have said that Ã¢â‚¬Â¦one of my greatest motifs in the book was to ingeniously attack individualism which I reckon I miserably bungled since not even one single reviewer of this book has ever discovered that (London 23). The book ends tragically inEdentaking his own life by drowning himself in water. This came at his best moments when he had attained recognition and his writing had been widely acclaimed which would have implied that he should have gotten the highest satisfaction given that such success is what he craved for in life. As it downed on him, societal gears just swung the other way when he had reached what he had all along considered the zenith of his literary acumen since it downed on him that not even his immense success as a writer would earn him the societal acceptance among the nobility and upper social class. There was always an aurora of discontent and despise from his contemporary artists from the higher social class, something that madly piquedEdenoff. It is this continued disrespect that eventually lured him into taking his own life (London58). In a word, events surrounding Jack Londons death have been closely associated with suicide after Edens manner thereby making the book obnoxiously futuristic pointing to the authors own death (London69). At the age of 33 when London had already attained fame and international acclaim with his previous work of literature (such as White Fang and The Call of the Wild), he quickly got bored with the bourgeoning fame and set out to sail throughout the entire of the Southern Pacific. It was on this voyage that London wrote the book, Martin Eden when he was struggling with lifes frustrations and some bowel illness to which he is thought to have succumbed. In the book,London reiterated his adolescent gangfights, artistic recognition, frustrations and romantic struggles that characterized his humble life. In summary, Martin Eden is a book that is widely considered an autobiography forLondongiven the many futuristic antidotes that it hints which are directly linkable to Jack Londons life. The many struggles in the book inEdens youth hood have direct resemblance with the many struggles thatLondonfought against in his own youth hood further making the book widely autobiographical. Inasmuch as there are some minor differences in the ideological statements made in the book and Londons own perceptions (such as individualism and socialism), it is commonplace for literary forms and therefore does not overtly cloud the pontification of the book as a being autobiographical in nature. It is in this view that Martin Eden is favoured herein as being autobiographical in its entirety. References Berman, P. Introduction to Martin Eden: xv.New York: Random House, 2002. London, Joan. Jack London and His times: An Unconventional Biography.New York: Doubleday. Doran, 1939 p.23 Campbell, Reesman. Prospects for the Study of Jack London Resources for American Literary Study. @Sunsite.Berkeley. Edu, 2001, 145. London, Jack. Martin Eden [M].Beijing Foreign Language Teaching Research Press, 1992.
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